Vitamin b3 is a water soluble vitamin. Niacinamide, nicotinamide or nicotinic acid amide. They are the amide of niacin. the body uses tryptophan to manufacture niacin. The body also requires b1, b2, and b6 to manufacture niacinamide from niacin. Niacin causes a histamine flush that may come as a surprise. I do not recommend it for those that have low blood pressure. I also believe that children should start with niacinamide rather than niacin. Niacinamide does not have the cholesterol lower effects that niacin does. Little bits of information that I have gathered over time has brought me to the conclusion that vitamin b3 is imperative for those that suffer from emotional or behavioral issues. The issue is not just a deficiency but also a genetic dependency. A dependency requires high doses more frequently. Niacinamide raises leukocytes which are the bacteria destroying white blood cells. This vitamin is also important for tissue respiration for the brain to function optimally. Vitamin b3 is necessary for the production of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, throxine, and also insulin. "This vitamin can promote healthy digestion, promote healthier skin, improve migraine headaches, promote circulation, ease diarrhea, reduce vertigo, and eliminate canker sores." -Earl Mindell Vitamin b3 can minimize cravings and addiction. When someone cannot get absolute resolution of illness with vitamin c, niacinamide is a necessary addition. I have whitnessed full resolution of emotional and behavioral issues including severe tics, using niacinamide with vitamin c. "On page 73 of Kaufman’s 1949 book, The Common Form of Joint Dysfunction. So accurately does it describe the problems of ADHD children that it is difficult to believe that vitamin B3 (which never causes cancer) has been so thoroughly ignored for so long. Kaufman continues: “With vitamin therapy, such a patient becomes unaccustomedly calm, working more efficiently, finishing what he starts, and he loses the feeling that he is constantly driving himself. He has leisure time that he does not know how to use. When he feels tired, he is able to rest, and does not feel impelled to carry on in spite of fatigue. If such a patient can be persuaded to continue with niacinamide therapy, in time he comes to enjoy a sense of well-being, realizing in retrospect that what he thought in the past was a superabundance of energy and vitality was in reality an abnormal ‘wound-up’ feeling, which was an expression of aniacinamidosis (niacin deficiency).” http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/2003/pdf/2003-v18n01-p029.pdf "The allergic symptoms can be produced by sublingual challenge or by fasting and then feeding one food at a time as a challenge. The symptoms produced will vary all the way from a slight itching of the skin to psychotic reactions. One patient cried all afternoon after being given a sublingual test for milk. Another patient, suffering from schizophrenia, was given a sublingual test for cigarettes. Five minutes after the test began, she turned on her mother with a very savage verbal attack which continued for approximately half an hour. Another patient known to be sugar and wheat sensitive suffers from chronic schizophrenia which is rather easily controlled unless he ignores his prescribed diet. Several days ago, this patient ate a slice of apple pie. Following the ingestion of the pie, he began actively hallucinating, was quite delusional and angry, and uncontrollable. " "The other group was given no nicotinic acid. Each of the groups was then exposed once more to the serum to which they were allergic. The animals which had received the niacin remained alive, and the other animals all died. The possibility is very strong that niacin is protecting some patients from cerebral allergic responses." http://www.orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1973/pdf/1973-v02n03-p084.pdf "With orthomolecular treatment, results are frequently quick in starting and the reduction in hyperactivity often dramatic, but in most instances several months elapse before significant changes are seen. The child exhibits a willingness to cooperate with his parents and teachers. Concentration and attention span increases, and the child is able to work productively for increasingly larger periods of time. " "Early intervention is of the utmost importance , not only for the child, but for the entire family since the child suffering from minimal brain dysfunction is such a devastating influence on the family constellation. He is the matrix of emotional storm which envelope every member of the household and disrupt both their reltionship to him and to each other." "Positive results have been have been obtained when the treatment regimen consisted of the following vitamins - niacinamide 1-2 grams daily depending upon body weight and ascorbic acid 1-2 grams daily." - Alan Cott, A Physician's Handbook on Orthomolecular Medicine.